Indigenous adolescent health in Aotearoa, New Zealand: trends, policies and promoting equity for Māori rangatahi, 2001-2019

Age How old are you?
Less than 12 years
Over 19 Selected age. Those aged 13 and under have been grouped together, as well as those aged 17 and over. Sex How do you describe yourself?
I am a boy/a man
I am a girl/woman
I identify myself in another way Boy/man = man
Girl/woman = woman
Another way = Another way
2019 was the first survey wave in which students were able to report a gender other than male or female. Those who did not report male or female were excluded for comparability with previous surveys, and their health and well-being will be reported in other results. Ethnicity Students reported their ethnicity based on Statistics New Zealand’s classification
Ministry of Health
Youth health care in secondary schools a framework for continuous quality improvement.

(question: what ethnicity do you belong to?) and were able to choose as many ethnicities as those that applied to them.

Students who selected multiple ethnicities were assigned to a single ethnicity using the New Zealand Census ethnic prioritization method. Any student who selected Maori was defined as a Maori ethnic group.
Pākehā, New Zealand Europeans or Other Europeans (“Whites”) were the students who selected only these ethnic groups. School decile School-level measure of SES based on New Zealand Census data on five indicators (household income, proportion of parents receiving income support, household overcrowding, parents’ educational qualifications, and job skill level of parents). employed parents). Students in lower decile schools tend to come from more socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Derived from the grade decile of the participants’ school. Urban/rural location Residential address Derived from student residential address and census grid. Classifications are based on Statistics New Zealand definitions. Large urban = 100,000 or more inhabitants, small town = 1,000 to 9,999 inhabitants, rural = less than 1,000 inhabitants Good or excellent general health In general, how would you rate your state of health?
Very well
Poor Students who answered “Excellent”, “Very good” or “Good” health status were classified as having “Good or excellent general health status”. Good emotional well-being (WHO-5) OMS-5
I felt happy and in a good mood
I felt calm and relaxed
I felt active and vigorous
I woke up refreshed and rested
My daily life has been filled with things that interest me Each response was scored from 0 (Never) to 5 (All the time), and these scores were added. Students with a score of at least 13 were classified as having good emotional well-being. Significant Depressive Symptoms (RADS-SF) Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (Reynolds, 2002) Students with a score of at least 28 were classified as having significant depressive symptoms. This scale has been validated in populations of young New Zealanders (Milfont 2008) Always use contraception How often do you or your partner(s) use contraception (by this we mean protection against pregnancy)?
Most of the time
This does not apply to me This only applies to currently sexually active students. Those who answered “Always” were classified as “Yes”, those who answered “Most of the time”, “Sometimes” or “Never” were classified as “No”. Those who indicated that contraception did not apply were classified as NA. Smoking cigarettes at least once a month How often do you smoke cigarettes now?
Never – I don’t smoke now
Once or twice a month
Once or twice a week
most days
Daily Students who responded that they smoked “once or twice a month” or more were scored as “yes” for this indicator. Binge has been drinking at least once in the past month In the past 4 weeks, how often have you had 5 or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting?
No way
Once in the past 4 weeks
Two or three times in the last 4 weeks
Every week
Several times a week Students who answered “Once in the last 4 weeks” or more were classified as “Yes”. Intense physical activity In the past 7 days, how often did you do any exercise or activity that made you sweat or breathe hard, or made your heart beat faster (such as soccer or rugby, running, swimming, fast biking , etc.) ?
I don’t exercise
Not in the last 7 days
1 to 3 times
4 to 6 times
7 times or more Students who answered “7 times or more” were classified as “Yes”. Passenger driven by an at-risk driver in the past month In the past month, have you traveled in a car driven by someone…
Who had been drinking alcohol?
Who was stoned or had taken drugs? Who was driving dangerously (speeding, racing, burnout)? Students who answered “Yes” to any of these questions were placed in the “Yes” category. Unable to access health care in past 12 months In the past 12 months, has there ever been a time when you wanted or needed to see a doctor or nurse (or other healthcare professional) about your health, but did not couldn’t do it? Yes Feel that at least one parent cares a lot about them How much do you think the following people care about you? My mom (or someone who acts like your mom), My dad (or someone who acts like your dad), Other family members
No way
A little
A lot
does not apply to me Students who answered “A lot” were classified as “Yes”. Family usually wants to know who you are with and where you are Does your family want to know who you are with and where you are?
Almost never Students who answered “Always” or “Usually” were classified as “Yes”. Feel part of the school Do you feel like part of your school? Yes Bullied at school weekly or more often In the past 12 months, how often have you been bullied at school/in class? Students who answered “About once a week or more” were categorized as “Yes”. Experienced with racism Have you ever been treated unfairly (eg, treated differently, made to wait) by a healthcare professional (eg, doctor, nurse, dentist, etc.) because of your ethnicity or ethnic group?
Have you been treated unfairly (harassed, harassed, etc.) by the police because of your ethnicity?
Have you ever been treated unfairly (e.g. treated differently) by a teacher/guardian because of your ethnicity?
Yes, in the past 12 months
Yes, more than 12 months ago
I don’t know/not sure
What was the reason you were bullied?
I have been bullied because of my ethnicity or culture
I was bullied because of my religion
I have been bullied because of my size or body shape
I have been bullied for being lesbian, gay, bisexual or gender diverse, or because people thought I was
I have been bullied because of my disability or health condition
Other or I don’t know why I was bullied If a student answered “Yes, in the past 12 months” or “Yes, more than 12 months ago” to any of the three questions about being treated unfairly, or if they had been bullied because of his ethnicity, he was rated “Yes”. .
If they were not categorized as ‘Yes’ and answered ‘Don’t know/not sure’ to any of the three questions, they were categorized as ‘Not sure’.
If the students answered “No” to all the questions, they were classified as “No”. The remaining students with missing responses were rated “NA”. Always safe in the neighborhood Do you feel safe in your neighborhood?
All the time
Not often
Never Those who answered “All the time” were categorized as “Yes”. Access to health care in the past 12 months When was the last time you went for health care (excluding online research)?
0 to 12 months ago
13 to 24 months ago
over 2 years ago Those who answered “0-12 months ago” were categorized as “Yes”.

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