Evaluation of Health Promotion Effect of Hepatitis B Prevention and Treatment in Zhejiang Demonstration Area, China | BMC Public Health
Health literacy of infectious diseases from a public health perspective includes three dimensions: knowledge, behaviors and skills related to infectious diseases, whereas low levels of health literacy are not conducive to health Population . Research on the health literacy of infectious diseases is of significant importance in public health.
There was no statistical significance of sex or age in this study. The level of education was mainly lower secondary, upper secondary and bachelor’s degree or higher. The ethnic group was mainly Han. Most of the participants were married. The main occupations were commercial and service workers, agricultural, forestry, fishing and water production workers, and professional and technical workers. Medical expenses were mainly covered by the basic medical insurance for urban workers, the basic medical insurance for urban residents and the new rural medical care cooperatives. Thus, the inhabitants of the demonstration area were above average in cultural level and average in economic level.
Before the health education, the health literacy level of hepatitis B prevention and control of residents basically showed a downward trend with increasing age, and the lowest in the group of age 55+, which was basically consistent with other national research findings [7,8,9,10,11,12]. After health education, the health literacy level of the population over the age of 55 still showed a low level of health literacy. This may be related to poor comprehension, inability to read traditional mission documents, inability to use cell phones and other electronic devices to obtain mission documents, and physical conditions such only bad eyesight. Therefore, in view of the elderly, especially the elderly over the age of 55, more suitable health education should be sought, popularization of knowledge on the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases and health intervention , health communication and quality of care services for the elderly, to improve the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases level of health literacy, at the same time is also of great importance to improve the quality of life of the elderly. The health literacy level of residents showed an upward trend with the change of income, and the health literacy level of people with more than 10,000 yuan/month was the highest, reaching more than 80%. is consistent with other national studies.[10, 11]. before the health education, residents’ awareness rate of hepatitis B transmission route was low, only 22.43%, which was consistent with the survey results of Liu Yang et al. . The awareness rate increased after the health education. To the question “what is the most important means of preventing hepatitis B at present”, the rate of correct answers before and after health education was approximately 61%, with no statistically significant difference, which reminds us to emphasize the importance of hepatitis B vaccination in the process of health education in the future.
The “Internet+” form of health education can better improve the health literacy level of hepatitis B prevention and treatment of residents. There were related studies at home and abroad, but few were related to the prevention and control of hepatitis B [15,17,18,19,20,21]. The form of health education in the future can be combined with the new situation of social development to continuously innovate the mode of health education. Since there were significant differences in the health literacy levels of residents in each group prior to this analysis, the follow-up analysis should adjust for differences in age, gender, and other aspects and make indicators of comparable assessment prior to the implementation of response measures.
Health literacy surveys aim to better target interventions. The fundamental objective of the health education intervention is to maximize the awareness of community residents regarding a specific health problem, to improve the decision-making capacity of individuals in the process of prevention and treatment diseases, and to emphasize cultivating people’s ability to recognize and use health information. in daily life . According to the CAP theory of health education, the rate of awareness of the prevention and treatment of hepatitis B is closely related to its incidence. . The survey found that after the health education intervention, the health literacy level of residents of Zhejiang Hepatitis B Prevention and Treatment Demonstration Zone reached 63.77%, which was higher than that of Chinese residents in 2020 (26.77%) . However, the survey revealed that the rate of awareness of hepatitis B transmission was low. In the future, publicity and education in this area should be strengthened to improve awareness of self-protection and reduce the risk of disease.
This study suggests that the model of health education based on “Internet +” is feasible and effective, but it also reminds that the accessibility of these technologies to the elderly must be taken into account when exploring new models. of health education. Different methods should be adopted for different groups. For example, for the elderly, the method of advertising with photos and accompanying text can be adopted. International experience can be used as a reference. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has launched a very practical health education tool called “Conversation Map”, which uses visual illustrations and activity maps for health education and has achieved good results . .
In conclusion, the results of this survey indicated that community health promotion activities have improved residents’ health literacy in the prevention and treatment of hepatitis B, and better results can be achieved by fully utilizing “Internet +” health education. However, there is still a large space to improve the level of health literacy of residents. In the future, a targeted health education intervention can be conducted to explore new modes of health education and effectively prevent and treat hepatitis B.
Strengths and limitations
This study had two strengths. First, our study had an adequate sample size and a relatively long intervention period. Second, it verified the benefits of Internet-based health education and provided a basis for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases in the future.
This study had the following limitations. First, the intervention was only conducted in rural areas of Zhejiang province, which may limit the general applicability of our findings. Second, although the control group, intervention group 1 and intervention group 2 were established in the 6 demonstration areas at the start of the study, only 3 demonstration areas received corresponding health education in strict compliance with groups. Therefore, only three demonstration domains were analyzed in the evaluation of the effects of “Internet+” health education.