One health – Surround Health http://surroundhealth.net/ Sun, 25 Sep 2022 21:30:00 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://surroundhealth.net/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/icon-68-120x120.png One health – Surround Health http://surroundhealth.net/ 32 32 One Health approach ‘key’ to repelling future threats https://surroundhealth.net/one-health-approach-key-to-repelling-future-threats/ Sun, 25 Sep 2022 21:30:00 +0000 https://surroundhealth.net/one-health-approach-key-to-repelling-future-threats/ Carroll: The next generation must be prepared for future pandemics From Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) to Covid-19, health authorities around the world have highlighted the need to improve capacity through the One Health approach as a means of protecting the global population from future pandemics. As health issues become increasingly complex given deteriorating environmental […]]]>

Carroll: The next generation must be prepared for future pandemics

From Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) to Covid-19, health authorities around the world have highlighted the need to improve capacity through the One Health approach as a means of protecting the global population from future pandemics.

As health issues become increasingly complex given deteriorating environmental conditions and climate change, delegates told a recent international conference by One Health University of Southeast Asia ( SEAOHUN) 2022 in Bangkok that the world should forge a One Health approach to address future health threats.

More than 300 health practitioners, educators and researchers from 30 countries gathered at the SEAOHUN 2022 international conference to brainstorm ways to improve their ability to fight infectious diseases.

In his keynote address “One Health in the Age of Pandemics and Climate Change”, Dennis Carroll, Chairman of the Board of the Global Virome Project, said that human health, animal health and their ecosystems are closely linked.

Drastic environmental changes caused by global warming threaten humanity with higher risks of new emerging infectious diseases and other health threats, he said.

“As Covid-19 will not be the last pandemic the world will face, the next generation must be prepared for the pandemics to come,” Dr Carroll said.

“Given the health risks associated with climate change, One Health Vision could be the answer by creating platforms that will improve the next generation’s capabilities to ensure the well-being of the world’s population, not just physical health or mental.”

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), One Health is an integrated and unifying approach that aims to balance and optimize the health of people, animals and ecosystems, which can help address the full spectrum of disease control (from prevention to detection, preparedness, response and management), and also contribute to global health security.

Smith: Climate change driving the spread of infectious diseases

Dr. Woutrina Smith, manager of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) One Health Workforce-Next Generation project, said that climate change, economic development, land use, mining energy and globalization are driving the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. diseases.

All of these factors contribute to new challenges such as emergence of zoonotic diseases, distribution of pathogens, health disparities, health and safety of food and water, loss of wildlife habitat , environmental contamination and diagnostic limitations.

Due to the complexity of the One Health approach, Dr Smith said the WHO has launched a skills-based education program to help countries in Southeast Asia improve their health systems and strengthen their public health workforce.

This two-year project, which began in January last year, aims to increase the knowledge, attitude and practice of One Health among stakeholders to help the region better prepare for future threats to health.

“With support from USAID, 113 participating universities under SEAOHUN and the Africa One Health University Network have joined this endeavor, over 40,000 people have been trained, 282 activities carried out and 60 partnerships formed under the network One Health, which will help prepare system health for new infectious diseases and silent pandemics like antimicrobial resistance,” she said.

This project not only targets practicing healthcare professionals, but it also aims to educate school-aged children and teachers about One Health.

Marilyn Crane, a USAID representative, said frontline workers have been trained and are now showing an understanding of the One Health concept.

Then deeper engagement is needed with community health workers, universities, medical equipment vendors, lab technicians and non-traditional health workers.

“A new development strategy is to increase the participation of young people, so that they can develop collective leadership,” she said.

Vipat: Universities can also help solve complex One Health issues

Dr. Vipat Kuruchittham, Executive Director of SEAOHUN, said universities can also help build the capacity of professionals from all sectors to address complex One Health issues, conduct research and help governments build their capacity. of public health.

Meanwhile, Dr Ruangwit Thamaree, of pharmaceutical giant Pfizer, said his company was working with universities to design microbiological monitoring courses, in addition to an antimicrobial stewardship plan (AMS) that can serve as guidelines. for all AMS teams.

“To combat antimicrobial resistance, a comprehensive package of prevention and microbiological surveillance measures is needed in infection control, in addition to vaccines,” Dr Ruangwit said.

“As the world prepares for new challenges, this fight is not meant to be a one-person fight, but a collective mission in which every sector must work together to ensure a secure future for our next generations.”

]]>
The monkeypox outbreak highlights the need for a One Health approach to prevent future zoonotic diseases https://surroundhealth.net/the-monkeypox-outbreak-highlights-the-need-for-a-one-health-approach-to-prevent-future-zoonotic-diseases/ Fri, 23 Sep 2022 15:40:00 +0000 https://surroundhealth.net/the-monkeypox-outbreak-highlights-the-need-for-a-one-health-approach-to-prevent-future-zoonotic-diseases/ Newswise – The current global outbreak of monkeypox is another warning to adopt a preventative, One Health approach to minimize the risk of future emergence of known and unknown zoonotic pathogens, say Professors Diana Bell and Andrew Cunningham. The scientists, writing a comment published in the CABI One Health newspaper, say the world “cannot afford […]]]>

Newswise – The current global outbreak of monkeypox is another warning to adopt a preventative, One Health approach to minimize the risk of future emergence of known and unknown zoonotic pathogens, say Professors Diana Bell and Andrew Cunningham.

The scientists, writing a comment published in the CABI One Health newspaper, say the world “cannot afford to ignore another warning” such as that presented by monkeypox which has so far seen 62,406 cases in 104 countries and 19 deaths*.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), monkeypox is a viral zoonosis (a virus transmitted to humans from animals) with symptoms similar to those seen in the past in smallpox patients, although it is clinically less serious.

With the eradication of smallpox in 1980 and the subsequent discontinuation of smallpox vaccination, monkeypox became the most important orthopoxvirus for public health, according to the WHO. Monkeypox occurs mainly in central and western Africa, often near tropical rainforests, and is increasingly appearing in urban areas. A range of African rodents appear to be the natural animal hosts of the monkeypox virus.

Professor Bell, Professor of Conservation Biology at the University of East Anglia (UEA) and Professor Cunningham, Deputy Director of Science at the ZSL Institute of Zoology, ZSL (Zoological Society of London), say the consequence The unintended act of smallpox eradication – and the end of the smallpox vaccination campaign – was to “render the world’s human population immunologically naive to orthopoxvirus infection for the first time in history”.

Professors Bell and Cunningham, in their commentary, say: “This has happened at a time when the majority of people in the world live in densely populated cities and where connectivity across the world has never been so high, which facilitates the emergence and spread of infectious diseases.”

“It is therefore not surprising that new zoonotic orthopoxvirus infections have increased in recent years, or that an international epidemic of human monkeypox disease has occurred.”

“A One Health approach, including consideration of land-use change and the trade in bushmeat and exotic pets, is needed to prevent opportunities for the emergence of monkeypox or diseases caused by monkeypox. other orthopoxviruses, and for a rapid and effective response to any epidemic in order to limit their spread.

The researchers highlight three examples where monkeypox has pathways of spread and where a One Health approach to its prevention is particularly needed – land use change, the bushmeat trade and the pet trade .

With regard to the bushmeat trade, for example, Professors Cunningham and Bell suggest that the Gambian giant rat, which is a possible carrier of the monkeypox virus, is “commonly consumed due to its relatively large size. large and therefore of particular interest as a potential source of zoonotic infection.

They add that despite extensive legislation prohibiting the importation of endangered taxa, or indeed any wild meat from Africa, significant quantities of bushmeat are smuggled via personal luggage into major European cities and Americans on passenger flights from West and Central African countries where monkeypox is endemic in wild animals.

Regarding the pet trade, scientists say a 2003 outbreak of monkeypox in six US states was traced to a shipment of 800 live small mammals imported from Ghana to Texas. Virological testing of some of these animals revealed MPV infection in three dormice, two rope squirrels and at least one Gambian giant rat.

Professors Bell and Cunningham say: “The demand is global with intercontinental smuggling involving South America and Asia as well as Africa and Europe, fueling biodiversity and ecosystem service conservation crises and increasing the threat of human exposure to known and unknown pathogens harbored by wildlife along trade routes and in destination countries.

They conclude by suggesting that a One Health approach to preventing new zoonotic disease outbreaks could incorporate the promotion of alternatives to bushmeat, routine vaccination of people at high risk of exposure, and education of people on treatment procedures. hygiene such as wearing gloves when handling live and dead wild animals.

CABI One Health Journal

CABI One Health is a new open access journal that focuses on the interconnections between humans, animals, plants, ecosystems and their common environment in a truly transdisciplinary way.

To learn more, visit: https://www.cabi.org/products-and-services/one-health-resources-cabi/one-health-journal-cabi/

]]>
Rabies training brings together human and animal health professionals in Côte d’Ivoire https://surroundhealth.net/rabies-training-brings-together-human-and-animal-health-professionals-in-cote-divoire/ Thu, 22 Sep 2022 16:03:02 +0000 https://surroundhealth.net/rabies-training-brings-together-human-and-animal-health-professionals-in-cote-divoire/ In a consolidated effort, several partners1 set up a comprehensive rabies course including an intensive 11-day program in Côte d’Ivoire, bringing together 25 animal and human public health professionals from Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, Niger, from Rwanda, Senegal, Chad and Togo. The course participants had already followed many online preparatory sessions. This in-person program […]]]>

In a consolidated effort, several partners1 set up a comprehensive rabies course including an intensive 11-day program in Côte d’Ivoire, bringing together 25 animal and human public health professionals from Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, Niger, from Rwanda, Senegal, Chad and Togo.

The course participants had already followed many online preparatory sessions. This in-person program therefore aimed to turn that knowledge into action through hands-on hands-on experience.

Key areas covered included strategic planning, access to PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis for bite victims), mass vaccination of dogs and laboratory work.

This international training on rabies aims to foster the emergence of collaborations between young professionals from different disciplines and sectors, and from various African countries. These actors are expected to contribute to strengthening the One Health approach in their respective countries to achieve the goal of zero cases of human rabies by 2030.”

Dr Madi Savadogo, Training Facilitator and Head of Rabies Free Burkina Faso

Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is administered to patients suspected of exposure to the rabies virus and consists of careful washing of wounds, passive immunization if indicated and a series of vaccinations. Access to PEP is very limited in many countries, and it is also expensive.

The course encouraged participants to discuss current challenges in providing rabies PEP as well as practical solutions to increase access to care and PEP for bite victims. In Côte d’Ivoire, rabies is a priority disease and vaccination and monitoring of human rabies are coordinated by the Antirabies Center of the National Institute of Public Hygiene. Participants visited one of 30 rabies vaccination units specializing in PEP for bite victims.

Rabies: Vaccination of dogs is a key pillar of zero by 30

dog vaccination is an essential pillar of Zero by 30: The Global Strategic Plan to End Human Deaths from Dog-mediated Rabies by 2030. The course urged all participants to view dog vaccination as a human public health issue as well as an animal health issue, with hands-on experience in planning and implementing dog vaccination campaigns and disease management. dog populations. Participants gained practical knowledge of dog behavior, safe dog handling, different vaccination techniques and ways to identify vaccinated dogs.

Rabies: participants put theory into practice by taking part in a dog vaccination campaign, Côte d'Ivoire, 2022

Participants put theory into practice by participating in a dog vaccination campaign run by local authorities in Bingerville. Dog owners were urged, via local radio announcements, social media posts and door-to-door, to bring their animals to local vaccination points.

Gbohounou Fabrice Gnali, course participant, working in the veterinary public health sector, recalled that ”the start of the campaign was tentative, but after word spread, many dog ​​owners came over the following days asking for a free rabies vaccination.”

Dog owners received a vaccination certificate and many were also asked about their knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to rabies.

Free-ranging dogs in the locality wear a ribbon after vaccination, Ivory Coast, 2022

In addition to this, participants helped vaccinate free-roaming dogs in the locality. All vaccinated animals were marked with a ribbon collar.

There are many dogs wandering the streets unaccompanied by their owners and it is unclear whether they have been vaccinated or not. In rural areas, both adults and children are not wary of dogs, whether vaccinated or not, and children tend to approach them; on the other hand, in urban areas, people are wary of dogs that do not belong to them.” Gbohounou Fabrice Gnali, DVM, Pasteur Institute of Côte d’Ivoire.

At the Bingerville Central Veterinary Laboratory, course participants were able to compare and practice different diagnostic procedures and discuss the importance of data collection, including standardized case definitions.

At central veterinary laboratory from Bingerville, course participants were able to compare and practice different diagnostic procedures and discuss the importance of data collection, including standardized case definitions, minimum indicators, and global data sharing. In many countries where rabies is endemic, laboratory testing of rabies-infected animals remains rare, but post-mortem investigations are important to improve epidemiological data on rabies and strengthen detection and surveillance.

The course aimed to increase awareness and communication about rabies in Africa and highlighted the need for multidisciplinary approaches and cross-sectoral cooperation. The participants exchanged experiences from their respective countries and discussed the various problems and opportunities in the fight against rabies in Africa, developing strategic and practical solutions.

Eliminating human rabies transmitted by dogs is complex but achievable. This requires sustained efforts to improve disease awareness, community engagement, responsible dog ownership, mass dog vaccination, cross-sector collaboration, appropriate wound management, and access to post-bite treatment (prophylaxis post-exposure). All of these topics were discussed, with the aim of empowering countries to move closer to the globally agreed goal of zero human deaths from dog-mediated rabies by 2030.

The course was organized by the Institut Pasteur and other key players.

Photo credit: WHO/Katrin Bote

————————————————– ————–

1. The course was organized by the Pasteur Institute of Côte d’Ivoire, the National Institute of Public Hygiene of Côte d’Ivoire, the Directorate of Veterinary Services of Côte d’Ivoire and the Pasteur Institute of Paris, in collaboration with the University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Mali, the Central Veterinary Laboratory of Mali, the Swiss Center for Scientific Research in Côte d’Ivoire and the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, with the support of the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI), Germany, the University of Lausanne, Switzerland, the HSeT foundation, Switzerland, the University of Glasgow, the Pasteur Network and Afrique One- ASPIRE, with the active participation of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control (GARC ).

]]>
Namibia uses One Health for rabies control, including oral rabies vaccines for dogs https://surroundhealth.net/namibia-uses-one-health-for-rabies-control-including-oral-rabies-vaccines-for-dogs/ Mon, 19 Sep 2022 14:18:59 +0000 https://surroundhealth.net/namibia-uses-one-health-for-rabies-control-including-oral-rabies-vaccines-for-dogs/ Interview with Rauna Athingo (Namibia) The northern part of Namibia in particular has been identified as a rabies hotspot, and numerous cases of rabies, both in humans and animals (dogs and cattle in particular), have occurred there in recent years. © Dr Rauna Athingo In 2006, Dr Rauna Athingo started working as a state veterinarian, […]]]>

Interview with Rauna Athingo (Namibia)

The northern part of Namibia in particular has been identified as a rabies hotspot, and numerous cases of rabies, both in humans and animals (dogs and cattle in particular), have occurred there in recent years.

© Dr Rauna Athingo

In 2006, Dr Rauna Athingo started working as a state veterinarian, responsible for disease control in the Oshana region – one of the northern regions of the country where rabies inflicts a particularly heavy burden. She was able to observe how vulnerable children were exposed to rabid dogs and puppies in particular. At that time, she recalls, the Directorate of Veterinary Services had no strategy on how to deal with rabies cases, which made their job very difficult. Dr Athingo played a leading role in the development of Namibia’s National Rabies Control Strategy, which provides guidance to all veterinarians and public health professionals on how to deal with cases of rabies.

“My vision is of a Namibia free from dog-mediated rabies, saving human lives and saving the livelihoods of farmers who also suffer massive livestock losses from rabies.” – Dr Rauna Athingo, Chief Veterinarian for Animal Disease Control at the Directorate of Veterinary Services, Namibia.

Rabies is an excellent example of a disease at the animal-human-environment interface: cases in dogs, humans and livestock are directly correlated. To make rabies elimination possible, different sectors must therefore collaborate and work together.

Namibia uses One Health for rabies control, including oral rabies vaccines for dogs© Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI)

In 2015, to do just that, and to try to cope with the growing number of rabies cases, Namibia started implementing a One Health approach. Competent authorities have identified the need for collaboration across sectors and have completely changed their approach to rabies control, improving coordination and collaboration as well as communication at the human-animal-environment interface. Representatives from various sectors, such as human and animal health, education, environment and academia, participated in the formulation of Namibia’s strategy. Many activities have been implemented within the framework of the One Health approach, both at the national level and in cooperation with neighboring countries such as Angola.

Private and public sector commitments have enabled Namibia to achieve the global goal of zero cases of dog-mediated rabies by 2030, raise community awareness and improve accessibility to post-exposure prophylaxis , especially among children and poor communities, since rabies has devastating effects not only on health but also on livelihoods. Financial burdens for bite victims, for example, include direct travel costs, as a number of trips to a health facility are required to complete the post-exposure prophylaxis program, as well as the loss of income that may result. of the exhibition. On top of that, exposure to rabies can place a heavy psychological burden on families, and dogs can also be associated with this traumatic experience, resulting in long-term fear for humans.

Given these economic, social and individual implications, controlling rabies at its source (i.e. the dogs themselves) is cheaper than providing post-exposure prophylaxis. It also helps to empower communities – if community members understand the dangers of rabies and ways to control it, they themselves can help save lives.

Dr Athingo’s message is clear: “Banish rabies from Namibia – get your pet vaccinated”.

Namibia uses One Health for rabies control, including oral rabies vaccines for dogs
© Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI)

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI) – Use of Oral Rabies Vaccines (Value and Use)

For more than five years now, the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI) has been supporting Namibia’s efforts to control rabies in various areas. In addition to carrying out evaluations, epidemiological analyzes and capacity building at the laboratory level, vaccination received particular attention.

Currently, rabies elimination efforts rely on the mass vaccination of dogs parenterally, which means injecting a dose of rabies vaccine under the skin. Vaccination campaigns usually rely on owners bringing their dog to vaccination points. However, stray and stray dogs are sometimes difficult to catch and this means that vaccination goals, to control rabies in the dog population, may not be achieved.

To increase herd immunity, these stray and stray dogs should be specifically targeted with vaccination campaigns, and oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of dogs is a possible solution in such cases.

Namibia uses One Health for rabies control, including oral rabies vaccines for dogs
© Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI)

With safe, effective and well-accepted oral vaccine baits available, ORV has the potential to be a game-changer in situations where parenteral vaccination alone cannot stop transmission within the canine population..” – Dr. Conrad Freuling, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut

Before using the vaccine in a larger field trial, colleagues at FLI, in collaboration with the University of Namibia, tested the immune responses elicited by oral vaccine baits in local populations of Thai and Namibian dogs. 1.2.

In a field trial in communal areas of northern Namibia, veterinary staff and dog owners expressed their appreciation for this particular approach to vaccination. With regard to oral vaccination, however, the acceptance of baits must be taken into account. Dogs will only go for “tasty” bait. Fortunately for the trial, a large number of dogs who were offered bait were interested. They ingest them and are then considered vaccinated. 3.

VROs can complement current parenteral vaccination strategies and go a long way in compensating for the lack of access to crucial parts of dog populations that rabies elimination programs must contend with.

Dr. Thomas Müller of the Friedrich-Loeffler Institute said: “The partnership with our Namibian colleagues has been and continues to be very fruitful. We are confident that the promising results of our field evaluations of VROs will pave the way for other countries in Africa and beyond to integrate VROs into their rabies control programs.

Namibia uses One Health for rabies control, including oral rabies vaccines for dogs
© Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI)
————————————————

]]>
One Health – What it means, why it’s vital https://surroundhealth.net/one-health-what-it-means-why-its-vital/ Sun, 11 Sep 2022 01:15:58 +0000 https://surroundhealth.net/one-health-what-it-means-why-its-vital/ It is only recently that zoonotic diseases such as leptospirosis, COVID-19 and other communicable diseases have caused governments around the world to recognize the importance of the One Health concept. According to the Pacific Community, the One Health concept recognizes that the health and well-being of humans, animals and the environment are all interconnected. […]]]>

It is only recently that zoonotic diseases such as leptospirosis, COVID-19 and other communicable diseases have caused governments around the world to recognize the importance of the One Health concept.


According to the Pacific Community, the One Health concept recognizes that the health and well-being of humans, animals and the environment are all interconnected. Photo: Ronald Kumar

It is only recently that zoonotic diseases such as leptospirosis, COVID-19 and other communicable diseases have caused governments around the world to recognize the importance of the One Health concept.

One Health encourages multisectoral and transdisciplinary collaboration to promote effective policies related to the “three healths”: animal, public and environmental.

The objective of this focus is to understand why the health of everyone (and everything) is interdependent.

The Ministry of Health (MOH), Ministry of Agriculture and other stakeholders have held several dialogues focused on implementing the One Health concept.

But there has been no formal and legal recognition of the One Health coordination mechanism in Fiji at the national level.

However, there have been pockets of engagement among stakeholders and ministries. The Department of Health works at the community level to help fight zoonotic diseases – diseases that are transmitted between animals and people and vice versa.

But that is still not enough. The need for a national approach to tackling zoonotic diseases is more critical than ever, following the global COVID-19 pandemic and the outbreak of leptospirosis in Fiji.

WHAT WORKS IN FIJI?

Having a One Health setup as an early warning system isn’t straightforward, says Simon Reid, associate professor of Global Disease Control at the University of Queensland.

The current working group, led by the Ministry of Health, organizes collaborative meetings between the Fiji Biosafety Authority, the Veterinary Service, the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Health.

However, it is understood that these collaborative meetings are not consistent.

“These meetings really open up the communication between them (the stakeholders), so that they develop mutual understanding, build trust, and build that ability to communicate,” Reid said.

“It’s valuable so that when things go wrong, communication between the partners is more likely to happen, and when it does, it’s more likely to be productive because they understand each other.”

Mr Reid said it would be difficult to justify allocating resources to something like a zoonotic disease program unless there was evidence that the burden of disease in people was so high.

“The burden of other diseases, especially non-communicable diseases, is so high that that’s where most of the resources are going, and I guess it’s really about looking at the community benefits of have these activities.

“I think even though I am advocating for One Health, I would not be advocating for the money to be misappropriated. I think running a network where people come together and talk about issues and are willing to work together is a very low cost, and that alone is a valuable resource.

“In a situation like Fiji, it would not be the right decision to divert critical care resources needed for people with heart disease and NCDs.”

WHY IS THE ONE HEALTH CONCEPT IMPORTANT FOR FIJI?

For a small island nation like Fiji, the One Health concept is important to deal with any pandemic, zoonosis or health issue that arises.

The establishment of a One Health framework would mean that stakeholders and line ministries can synergize their resources to promote a healthier population more broadly.

Ministry of Agriculture Permanent Secretary Vinesh Kumar said the One Health concept avoids information asymmetry and enables a team to work towards the same goal and advocate on the same page.

“The One Health concept enables relevant stakeholders to form complementary policies where we can work together for a common goal, healthier animals, livestock, food sources and people,” Mr. Kumar said.

COVID-19 and existing zoonotic diseases have made it clear that Fiji needs a resilient health infrastructure and an effective multi-sectoral approach to meet these challenges.

In response to emailed questions, the Pacific Community (SPC) reports that global funding has been increased to help improve animal health and promote One Health priorities worldwide.

“There is a growing understanding of the One Health concept, which recognizes that the health and well-being of humans, animals and the environment are all interconnected,” SPC said.

The regional office of the World Health Organization (WHO) echoed similar sentiments, saying it was vital that governments continue to strengthen their health systems.

“As the COVID-19 pandemic has shown, the travel industry, the education system and the economy in general all depend on good health,” the WHO said.

“We must therefore make the most of the unprecedented level of financial and political support currently available for the pandemic response to ensure that health systems in the Pacific are prepared to meet current and future health threats.”

THE RELEVANCE OF ONE HEALTH FOR FIJI

Prior to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, Fiji and the world were already dealing with diseases directly linked to the relationship between animal health and human health.

Studies have shown that up to 60% of human diseases worldwide – and 75% of new and emerging diseases – are of zoonotic origin.

One such pathogen is leptospirosis, a bacterium that spreads to humans through water and soil contaminated with the urine of infected animals. This zoonotic disease has claimed hundreds of lives in Fiji, and continues to do so.

For this year, data released as of May 17 indicates that there have been 2,068 laboratory-confirmed cases, 681 hospitalizations and 36 deaths from leptospirosis.

Every year, leptospirosis continues to threaten Fiji. Hence the urgent need for a better way to undertake a multi-sector approach, including surveillance of emerging disease threats. The One Health concept can help bridge the integrated surveillance gap between human health and animal health.

AREAS OF INTERVENTION FOR ONE HEALTH

These include food safety, control of zoonoses and the fight against antibiotic resistance in plants and animals.

At the 8th Asia-Pacific Global Workshop on Multisectoral Collaboration at the Animal-Human-Ecosystems Interface held in Bangkok, Thailand in April 2019, Fiji had identified five priority zoonotic diseases. They were:

  1. Leptospirosis;
  2. Tuberculosis (TB);
  3. Brucellosis (cases in humans are often overlooked);
  4. Arboviral diseases (dengue, chikungunya, zika); and
  5. Flu.

WHAT DO THESE ZOONOTIC DISEASES HAVE IN COMMON?

They are transmitted from animals to humans.

Outbreaks of these zoonoses affect animal feed production, human welfare, morbidity and mortality.

In the case of leptospirosis, it is transmitted by pathogenic leptospires excreted in the urine of infected animals.

These infected animals include rodents, pets, livestock, and wildlife.

In its response, the WHO said: “Leptospirosis can be spread when bacteria from the urine of an infected animal – such as a dog, cow, pig or rat – enters someone’s body. a.This can happen if drinking water is contaminated or if dirty water splashes into someone’s eyes, nose or mouth, or onto a cut or scratch.

RELEVANCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE

The SPC says the incidence of diseases such as leptospirosis is known to increase during floods and heavy rains.

With the increase in heavy rains and flooding in some places, people tend to move. Most of the time, resettlement means moving further inland where contact with wild animals is unavoidable, SPC said.

This increases the chances of contracting zoonotic diseases such as leptospirosis.

Two severe floods in 2012 led Fiji to record the highest number of leptospirosis outbreaks and deaths to date. There have been 576 reported cases and 40 deaths.

Seasonal rains and flooding provide ideal conditions for an outbreak of leptospirosis. Fiji’s tropical climate provides ample opportunity for bacteria to reproduce in mammals, including cattle, rats and pets, which act as reservoirs for leptospirosis.

WHY THE URGENT NEED FOR ONE HEALTH?

Zoonotic diseases spread rapidly and most are not confined to their country of origin, for example the monkeypox epidemic in Australia which has now become a pandemic.

It is important to note that approximately 70-80% of infectious diseases are caused by animals.

These diseases arise because their environments are impacted by human encroachment, or because more wild animals are removed from their original habitats and come into direct contact with humans and domestic animals, such as livestock.

Stray dogs are common throughout the country.  Photo: Ronald Kumar

Stray dogs are common throughout the country. Photo: Ronald Kumar

There is also growing concern that bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics because the drug has been over-prescribed and over-consumed even for illnesses. These RAM bacteria can infect humans and animals, and the infections they cause are more difficult to treat than non-resistant bacteria.

The WHO maintains that approximately 700,000 people die each year from AMR; this number could increase to 10 million people per year by 2050 if the situation is not brought under control.

The One Health framework could help Fiji effectively combat these epidemics and antibiotic resistant bacteria, by providing a robust health system, as well as policies that complement the roles of all stakeholders and ministries. But he needs the support of the government – ​​of the policy makers, of the politicians.

At the 8th Asia-Pacific Global Workshop on Multisectoral Collaboration at the Animal-Human-Ecosystems Interface, member countries, including Fiji, were encouraged to seek high-level political commitment for One Health.

Mr Kumar said there were challenges because One Health required a multi-sector approach and it was sometimes difficult to keep ministries and stakeholders engaged.

But so far, work related to One Health in Fiji has been led exclusively by the Ministry of Health.

The working group set up by the Ministry of Health exercises its functions within the framework of the powers conferred on the Minister and Permanent Secretary for Health. But this formal level of structure may not work for some ministries and stakeholders.

Hence the need for an effective mechanism such as One Health to ensure a healthy human population, a healthy animal population and a healthy environment.

Feedback: ivamere.nataro@fijisun.com.fj

]]>
One Health opens Sheridan Clinic | Local News https://surroundhealth.net/one-health-opens-sheridan-clinic-local-news/ Fri, 12 Aug 2022 16:30:00 +0000 https://surroundhealth.net/one-health-opens-sheridan-clinic-local-news/ SHERIDAN – One Health, a Montana-based federally licensed health center that provides integrated primary care, behavioral health care and dental services, opened the doors to a new Sheridan Clinic on August 10. The clinic is located in the historic Sheridan Railroad Depot at 201 E. Fifth St. “With the opening of this new Sheridan Clinic, […]]]>

SHERIDAN – One Health, a Montana-based federally licensed health center that provides integrated primary care, behavioral health care and dental services, opened the doors to a new Sheridan Clinic on August 10.

The clinic is located in the historic Sheridan Railroad Depot at 201 E. Fifth St.

]]>
Rutgers University Hosts One Health Consortium Regional Conference https://surroundhealth.net/rutgers-university-hosts-one-health-consortium-regional-conference/ Fri, 12 Aug 2022 07:00:00 +0000 https://surroundhealth.net/rutgers-university-hosts-one-health-consortium-regional-conference/ A group of scientists, experts and representatives from New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Maryland, North Carolina and West Virginia gathered for a Central Regional One Health Consortium conference of the Atlantic at Rutgers University last week. In-person and virtual participants shared data and knowledge regarding ongoing efforts in their states on issues related to human, animal […]]]>

A group of scientists, experts and representatives from New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Maryland, North Carolina and West Virginia gathered for a Central Regional One Health Consortium conference of the Atlantic at Rutgers University last week.

In-person and virtual participants shared data and knowledge regarding ongoing efforts in their states on issues related to human, animal and environmental health. Topics included ticks and tick-borne diseases, zoonotic diseases, wildlife diseases, wildlife mortality, coordinated responses to avian influenza, mosquito management and impact, rabies, climate change, nutrition and sustainability on all living organisms and our common environment.

The event was hosted by Dr. Gloria Bachmann, Associate Dean of Women’s Health and Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Medicine at Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Co-Chair of the New Jersey One Health Steering Committee and Member from senior faculty at Rutgers Global Health Institute, and by Michael Zwick, senior vice president for research at Rutgers University.

“COVID-19, health disparities, monkeypox, nutrition, climate change, agriculture, it’s all to do with One Health. We in universities need to build work teams and partnerships to solve these large and complex problems,” Zwick said. He encouraged attendees to network and engage with each other and build relationships, a theme echoed in many conference presentations.

Cheryl Stroud, DMV, Executive Director, One Health Commission, and keynote speaker, spoke about the importance of building relationships.

“In today’s world, no profession or discipline can know everything. We need to step out of our comfort zones and take the initiative to make sure we connect with people from other fields. We need to build relationships across the silos our systems have forced us into, across disciplines so that when an emerging health crisis occurs, we already have professional working relationships in place. As is often said, during a health crisis, it’s a very bad time for medical professionals and local government officials to exchange business cards for the first time when they have to work hand in hand. hand,” Stroud said.

In his presentation, Stroud gave a high-level overview of the history of the One Health movement. She spoke about the work being done internationally in terms of the One Health movement, meetings and summits, and applauded New Jersey for its efforts in creating a One Health task force.

And Doug Riley ended the day of presentations by encouraging attendees to think about ways to take the first step to connecting with each other and continuing the work of the One Health initiative.

]]>
Take ‘one health’ seriously: The Tribune India https://surroundhealth.net/take-one-health-seriously-the-tribune-india/ Wed, 27 Jul 2022 23:52:00 +0000 https://surroundhealth.net/take-one-health-seriously-the-tribune-india/ Dinesh C. Sharma Scientific commentator THE world is yet to fully overcome the coronavirus pandemic with new cases still being reported in many countries including India. Amid efforts to end the pandemic, a new health threat has emerged – an outbreak of monkeypox in several countries. Some 17,000 cases have been reported […]]]>


Dinesh C. Sharma


Scientific commentator

THE world is yet to fully overcome the coronavirus pandemic with new cases still being reported in many countries including India. Amid efforts to end the pandemic, a new health threat has emerged – an outbreak of monkeypox in several countries. Some 17,000 cases have been reported in 75 countries. India has so far recorded four confirmed cases.

Given the large animal and human population who live close to forests and wildlife habitats, India is a hotspot for zoonotic diseases.

Although not a new virus like SARS-COV-2, which led to the Covid pandemic, monkeypox has spread rapidly even to countries that have not seen it before . The outbreak has been declared an international health emergency as WHO experts see a risk of international spread. These are the early days of the epidemic and scientific data on new modes of transmission are still emerging. Surveillance and public health measures have been suggested based on available data and prior knowledge. However, the risk of the virus causing travel disruption etc remains low, for now, and a vaccine against it exists. So there is no need to panic.

Yet the frequency with which new health threats emerge shows that emerging and re-emerging infections, especially zoonotic diseases, will dominate health discourse. Monkeypox is a re-emerging disease. It has been endemic in a dozen countries in Central and West Africa for almost half a century. This is causing some concern now as the current outbreak has spread to dozens of non-endemic countries.

The monkeypox virus belongs to the same genus as smallpox. Its recent history is closely linked to that of smallpox. The monkeypox virus was first reported in 1959 in long-tailed macaque monkeys used in laboratory experiments to test new drugs. It was reported by a laboratory in Copenhagen which had imported monkeys from Singapore. When the WHO launched the smallpox eradication programme, its physician in charge DA Henderson undertook a study to determine whether non-human primates such as monkeys were a reservoir of the smallpox virus. This was essential because if there was a large reservoir of smallpox in the wild, it could pose a threat to the human smallpox eradication program.

In the 1960s and 1970s, India exported monkeys for animal studies in Western laboratories. Henderson investigated 26 major laboratories that had colonies of experimental monkeys. Several of them reported the presence of monkeypox but found no transmission to humans. Lederle Laboratories have handled some 8,000 monkeys and reported the presence of monkeypox virus in some rhesus monkeys arriving from India. Another American pharmaceutical company, Wyeth Laboratories, also discovered the monkeypox virus in monkeys from India.

Henderson’s study published in 1968 is a significant indicator of the presence of monkeypox in Indian monkeys, although the study concluded that “man may be relatively insensitive” to the virus. He was wrong when the first human case of monkeypox was reported in Congo in 1970 by WHO smallpox eradication officials. Several species of monkeys inhabited the area from which the case was reported, and monkey meat was considered a delicacy among locals. The first outbreak outside endemic countries was reported in the United States in 2003.

Animals are a reservoir of a range of pathogens and viruses. Sometimes these viruses can jump from species to species and spread to humans. In recent years, we have seen several outbreaks of zoonotic diseases, such as Avian Influenza, SARS, Pandemic Influenza H1N1, MERS-CoV, Ebola, and SARS-Cov-2. Even the commonly reported rabies, which is transmitted by dogs, is a zoonotic disease. The viruses responsible for these diseases are spread through an interaction between humans, animals and the environment, and they affect human and animal health, and can potentially impact food supplies. Many factors are responsible for increased contact between humans and animals – from deforestation to increased meat consumption and even animal husbandry. In recent years, Indians have taken to keeping exotic animals as pets. Livestock and other animals like monkeys and dogs live nearby in many areas. The threat of new infectious agents is also increasing due to increased travel, changing dietary habits and the international trade in animal meat.

In order to prevent and contain zoonotic diseases, it is necessary to adopt an integrated approach to human and animal infections in what has been called “one health”. This means that different agencies concerned with animal and human health, food supply, wildlife, etc., should work together. There must be constant surveillance for infections shared between humans, livestock and wildlife. Over the past few years, a number of intersectoral committees, plans and frameworks have been prepared to implement “One Health”, but progress is slow. The National Center for Disease Control has directed all states and UTs to form zoonotic committees at the state and district levels, but not all states have this infrastructure in place. Wherever these panels exist, there is ambiguity about the alignment of the work of the livestock, forestry and wildlife departments when it comes to performing tasks such as monitoring and control. There is a lack of technical capacity at different levels. In the Northeastern border states, there is a need to monitor cross-border pathogens. In addition, the integrated disease surveillance program to monitor new human infections needs to be further strengthened.

Considering the large livestock population and human populations that live close to forests and wildlife habitats, India is a hotspot for zoonotic diseases. The Covid pandemic, and now the monkeypox epidemic, serve as a reminder of the imminent dangers to human health and the need for urgent action. India must prioritize investments to strengthen human and animal health infrastructure at all levels, develop the necessary technical manpower and operationalize policies to make “One Health” a reality on the ground.

]]>
The One Health initiative brings together experts in human, animal and environmental health https://surroundhealth.net/the-one-health-initiative-brings-together-experts-in-human-animal-and-environmental-health/ Mon, 25 Jul 2022 22:19:04 +0000 https://surroundhealth.net/the-one-health-initiative-brings-together-experts-in-human-animal-and-environmental-health/ By Blair Willis, Arizona University of Health Sciences Monday Malaria is a zoonotic disease spread by the Anopheles mosquito. Fighting malaria requires a One Health approach that considers mosquito ecology, how mosquitoes interact with humans, and the environmental conditions that contribute to the spread of the disease. Malaria, a disease caused by the bite of […]]]>

By Blair Willis, Arizona University of Health Sciences

Monday

Malaria is a zoonotic disease spread by the Anopheles mosquito. Fighting malaria requires a One Health approach that considers mosquito ecology, how mosquitoes interact with humans, and the environmental conditions that contribute to the spread of the disease.

Malaria, a disease caused by the bite of a certain type of mosquito, is preventable and usually treatable. Yet the World Health Organization estimated that in 2020 there were 241 million cases of malaria which resulted in 627,000 deaths.

Doctors can prescribe preventive and curative drugs, but they cannot prevent the disease from spreading among the mosquito population and posing a risk to populations with limited access to health care.

Franck von Hippel

Franck von Hippel

“To do something about malaria, you need to understand the ecology of Anopheles mosquitoes, their interactions with humans, and the environmental conditions that contribute to the spread of the disease,” said Frank A. von Hippel, a professor at the University of Arizona Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. “This applies to thousands of diseases where expertise in human health, animal health and environmental health overlaps.”

A recent example is COVID-19. Like malaria, COVID-19 is a zoonic disease, which means it can spread from an animal host to people and from people to animals. But unlike malaria, COVID-19 is contagious between humans.

“In order to understand both the current pandemic and to predict and prevent future pandemics, you need to understand the ecology of the system,” von Hippel said. “In the case of COVID-19, this includes the ecology of bats that harbor the virus, how this virus can ecologically jump to humans, and how it spreads.”

Understanding each of these factors is too big a task for a single expert or a single area of ​​research. To fully understand the complexities and interconnections between people, animals, plants and the environment, a more collaborative approach to research is needed.

To that end, Arizona University of Health Sciences is supporting a campus-wide One Health research initiative, led by von Hippel. By integrating human, animal and environmental health expertise, One Health aims to improve health outcomes, better respond to public health challenges, ensure safe and healthy food and water, and protect global health security.

The Ultimate One Health Topic

A trip to a local grocery store or farmers’ market has far greater health implications than one might think, including the availability of healthy food. Indeed, our food system is very complex, according to Kerry CooperFellow of the BIO5 Institute and Assistant Professor in the School of Comparative Animal and Biomedical Sciences at the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

a water channel next to farmland

In lettuce fields, animal manure can contaminate soil or irrigation water with E. coli, which can pose a serious risk to human health. The outbreaks of E. coli in romaine lettuce are a recent example of why Kerry Cooper believes food safety is One Health‘s ultimate topic.

The products we eat are typically grown on farms, where contaminants in the soil and other environmental conditions can threaten the safety of our food, Cooper said. Water used to grow plants can also pose its own threats. Local water sources are essential not only for crop growth, but also for the survival of wildlife such as birds, insects and other animals, including livestock.

Each aspect of the cycle can be further disrupted by human-caused environmental changes – pollution, for example – that affect the food supply.

“There are a lot of things that go into food safety that most people don’t think about,” Cooper said. “That’s why I see food safety as the ultimate subject of One Health.”

A more complete story

Kristen Pogreba-Brown

Kristen Pogreba-Brown
Arizona University of Health Sciences

Kristen Pogreba-Brown, an associate professor at the Zuckerman College of Public Health, has championed the One Health approach for several years. As an infectious disease epidemiologist, she sees One Health as essential to solving “tough issues” like pandemics, antibiotic resistance and water security.

“These are very big problems that we’re not going to solve with one entity or one discipline,” said Pogreba-Brown, who teaches an applied One Health course at Zuckerman College of Public Health. “We’ve been working locally for years, but now we’re starting to look more seriously at collaborations and opportunities to address these issues together.”

Pogreba-Brown and Cooper have combined their expertise in the area of ​​foodborne illness for several years.

“Kerry says he doesn’t want to talk to people and investigate them for a living, and I don’t want to collect fecal samples,” Pogreba-Brown said. “That’s one of the things that makes us good collaborators.”

Pogreba-Brown’s research can collect information from people, such as what someone ate before they got sick, while Cooper’s research can confirm whether the bacteria that caused the illness came from the source reported by the patient.

“She’s the epidemiologist, I’m the microbiologist,” Cooper said. “We can combine his data and my data to get a much more complete story.”

A holistic approach

At the inaugural UArizona Health Sciences One Health Symposium in May, Kate Worthing describes what a veterinarian can bring to a One Health team.

“A veterinarian thinks about humans who are associated with an animal and the environment shared by humans and the animal,” said Worthing, assistant professor of practice at the College of Veterinary Medicine. “It’s this lateral thinking and holistic approach that makes vets such great team members.”

Worthing, Cooper and Pogreba-Brown are laying the foundation for stronger collaborations, especially in the area of ​​food safety and foodborne diseases that affect animals and humans.

Worthing is also interested in working with Pogreba-Brown and other public health researchers to study One Health animal shelter approaches. They hypothesize that animal shelters could serve as a useful model for infection control in human long-term care facilities.

New research opportunities

Frank A. von Hippel, Daniel Derksen and Michael D. Dake

Left to right: Frank A. von Hippel was joined by Dr. Daniel Derksen, UArizona Associate Vice President of Health Sciences for Health Equity, Outreach, and Interprofessional Activities, and Dr. Michael D. Dake, Senior Vice President for Health Sciences, to welcome researchers from across campus to the One Health Symposium in May.
Arizona University of Health Sciences

One Health Symposium attendees also heard from Pogreba-Brown about the research she and her graduate students are conducting on the impact of the pandemic on conditions at the Pima Animal Care Center. Her class has conducted needs assessments and other projects with the center through the implementation of a One Health model.

“Everyone wants to make evidence-based decisions,” said BIO5 Institute Fellow Pogreba-Brown. “But first you have to have the evidence.”

If researchers can demonstrate that One Health approaches to animal care are successful, it could attract federal funds to initiate studies and implement new human health care policies.

“The idea is to break down research silos,” von Hippel said. “We have lots of research groups on campus working on one or two aspects of One Health, but usually not all three. The expertise is there, we just need to bring everyone together.”

One Health is supported in part by state funding from the New Economy Initiative at the University of Arizona and allocated to UArizona Health Sciences.

The next UArizona One Health Symposium will take place September 28 and will feature Linda Birnbaum, former director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and National Toxicology Program, as keynote speaker.

A version of this article originally appeared on the UArizona Health Sciences website.

]]>
New One Health program ‘including livestock’ could help protect the world from pandemic disease https://surroundhealth.net/new-one-health-program-including-livestock-could-help-protect-the-world-from-pandemic-disease/ Mon, 18 Jul 2022 22:51:00 +0000 https://surroundhealth.net/new-one-health-program-including-livestock-could-help-protect-the-world-from-pandemic-disease/ A new One Health handbook offers governments around the world 18 practical ways to improve livestock systems in developing countries, which will unlock benefits for global health and development. A “livestock-inclusive” One Health program focusing on seven key areas in the Global South would help protect the entire world against pandemic diseases, according to the […]]]>

A new One Health handbook offers governments around the world 18 practical ways to improve livestock systems in developing countries, which will unlock benefits for global health and development.

A “livestock-inclusive” One Health program focusing on seven key areas in the Global South would help protect the entire world against pandemic diseases, according to the brief from the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI).

About three-quarters of emerging infectious diseases in humans originate in wild and domestic animals, and before the Covid-19 pandemic, animal-borne diseases almost exclusively affected people in low-income countries. Only 13 of the 200 known zoonotic diseases cause 2.2 million deaths per year, mostly in developing countries.

ILRI scientists highlighted how investments in healthier and more sustainable livestock systems in developing countries would benefit all three interconnected One Health domains: animal, human and environment, and reduce the risk of spread of diseases.

Recommendations include increasing the availability and use of livestock vaccines to reduce the threat of interspecies disease outbreaks, raising public awareness of the precautions needed to limit the spread of disease, and improving standards hygiene and food safety in informal markets.

It is impossible to overstate the importance and ubiquity of livestock in African, Asian and Latin American countries. Everything from food and nutrition to gender equality, livelihoods and trade depends on farmed animals. »


Jimmy Smith, Managing Director of ILRI

“Healthy livestock means healthy people and environments, which not only enables low-income countries to sustainably develop their economies, but also improves global health security, minimizing the risk of epidemics spreading around the world. entire.”

The brief, which comes ahead of the upcoming meeting to discuss an “international pandemic prevention treaty”, also highlights the importance of improving the early detection of emerging zoonotic infections in animals both to protect the livelihoods of poorest and to prevent pandemics in humans. One such disease is the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), a virus transmitted by camels, which is becoming increasingly popular in countries like Kenya for its climate resilience.

ILRI scientists and partners have begun to strengthen MERS surveillance in camels both to better understand camel diseases and to anticipate potential outbreaks in humans, which could develop into another pandemic.

“As the World Health Organization moves towards a new pandemic preparedness treaty, it is critical that governments seize the opportunity to invest in livestock systems to improve public health,” Hung said. Nguyen-Viet, co-head of the animal and human health program at ILRI.

“Tackling zoonotic diseases at source would dramatically reduce human illness and death while saving billions of dollars in future epidemic or pandemic control.”

In addition to preventing pandemics, livestock-based One Health approaches can also contribute to healthier ecosystems, especially when applied to mixed crop-livestock systems. In such systems, crop residues provide animal feed while the animals provide organic fertilizer to maintain soil health, as well as traction and income that can in turn be reinvested in crop production.

Similarly, healthier livestock systems also increase the resilience of communities and economies, leaving rural populations less vulnerable to hunger, malnutrition and ill health. Some 70% of the 1.4 billion people living in extreme poverty in the world depend on livestock for their livelihood. Improving productivity through smarter feeding, farmer education and range management can allow livestock keepers to get more from their animals, resulting in higher incomes, more nutritious diets and better health prospects.

“As we have seen with the Covid-19 pandemic, vulnerabilities and health threats in one part of the world can quickly spread and affect the entire global population,” added Dr Smith.

“The prevalence of livestock in developing countries makes it a unique vehicle for improving the lives of the most vulnerable and, in doing so, protecting health worldwide.”

Source:

International Livestock Research Institute

]]>